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Review: German Atrocities, 1914 (Horne & Kramer)

German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial.

This book is enough to give you nightmares.

With a thoroughness reminiscent of Fritz Fischer’s Germany’s Aims in the First World War, the authors of this scholarly work approach the evidence from every possible angle to determine the nature of German army conduct during the first month of the war.

The verdict: Yes, the German army committed atrocities against Belgian and French civilians, although a few of the claims made by traumatized refugees may have been exaggerated. Both the perpetrators and the victims of the atrocities are found to have suffered from different varieties and degrees of delusion, with the franc-tireur myth that motivated the German soldiers to react hysterically and barbarically being the one most deeply entrenched, both in the collective psyche of the German military (men, officers, and the higher command) and German civilians (in government and on the home front).

My personal assessment is that the upper echelons of the German command were more likely to endorse spontaneous harsh action by the lower level of the Imperial army against a perceived levee en masse or “People’s War,” because the last of the wars of German unification under Prussian rule were still a matter of living memory: the new German Empire could be seen as vulnerable to breakup should the other German kingdoms and principalities decide to rise against Prussian hegemony.

Moreover, many individuals among the troops who violated Belgian neutrality and invaded France certainly would have harbored some degree of guilty conscience over the campaign, despite the Emperor’s and the government’s loud and continual insistence that they were waging a “defensive” war. This feeling of guilt would have contributed to their edginess and propensity to overreact to any perceived threat, however spurious, while they were on foreign soil. Rationalization in defense of a guilty conscience knows no bounds.

In addition, some of the mutilations attributed to personally inflicted, malicious injury of civilians may be attributable to a personalized reinterpretation of the maiming sustained by those who were wounded by shrapnel or the flying remnants of high-explosive shells during the bombardment of cities and villages. Unprovoked, undeserved invasion conducted with artillery fire that caused physical harm and mental mayhem on a scale approaching that of a weapon of mass destruction would certainly be taken personally by the afflicted civilians, especially where women and children were concerned.

While most losses of hands or mutilation of breasts could reasonably be blamed on shellfire, the intentional severing of women’s hands by German soldiers could have occasionally occurred, motivated by pillage (the thieving of jewelry), although any such instances probably happened after the victim was already dead. Severing the hands of living children would have served no purpose (not even for intimidation), because the victims would have bled to death within minutes, and could not have been the refugees with bandaged stumps that were reported to have been seen.

The research includes a detailed examination of German obfuscation, counter-charges and cover-ups undertaken during the interwar period, in an effort to get out of paying reparations and accepting war guilt: the tactics of a strategy which eventually achieved temporary success, as postwar pacifism propounded its theories of futility, collective guilt, and appeasement – which ultimately backfired twenty years later. (NB: Although Hitler had repudiated payment of the reparations, payments were resumed sometime after the Second World War, and Germany finally paid off its punitive debt for the First World War in 2010.)

The book is illustrated with period artwork from newspapers, books and magazines. It concludes with appendices of raw data (with an extensive explanatory note), selected sections from the Hague Convention (IV) of 1907 and the Treaty of Versailles, and details from allied demands for extradition. The copious end notes include a table of abbreviations, and are followed by a bibliography and an adequate index, although both of the latter are printed in an extremely small font that requires the use of a magnifying glass.

The detail of the research can make a daunting read, but its psychological slant is thought-provoking and well worth the effort.

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Review: Bully Beef & Biscuits (Hartley)

Bully Beef & Biscuits: Food in the Great War.

“Iron rations” don’t sound especially appetizing, but you might just work up an appetite while reading this book.

Lavishly illustrated with period photos (all unique, as far as I can tell) and reproductions of advertisements, the author guides us through the entire period of the war from the gastronomic perspective. The book covers all of the theaters for which army feeding information exists, although most of the illustrations portray the soldiers of the BEF, with just a sprinkling of pictures of the French, Germans and others.

The author quotes extensively from unit and individuals’ diaries and from soldier letters sent home. He spends a chapter on home front issues in the UK, such as conscription of agricultural workers, the recruitment of females for agricultural work, and rationing. Also examined are the logistics of supply, as well as a comparison between officer and enlisted men’s diets. An interesting contribution to this history is the addition of one or more period recipes at the ends of all the chapters.

Significant points in the fighting histories of the units and individual soldiers who are quoted flesh out the text. Some of this background information seems only marginally relevant to the topic of the book, but I suppose the idea is to include some “human interest” material with the collections of menus and descriptions of meals that often don’t vary much. The rehash of some of the battles does pad the book, as do the huge number of photos and even the relatively thick paper stock on which the book is printed. If not published this way, the book may have ended up being a thinner and much lighter-weight volume.

The numbered end notes immediately precede an adequate index. It’s a hefty hardbound book that presents well, although it began to show a quality issue with the gluing of the signatures into the binding, such that in time, some pages could come loose.

A well written specialty study that supplies necessary information for the Great War novelist, and would make several good “aperitifs” (or supply a number of between-meal “snacks”) for an armchair general. Recommended.

NB: I bought this copy new (although at a significant reduction from the list price) from A Major Online Retailer, and was impressed by the care that was taken to ship it: tightly encased in bubble wrap, with the dust jacket enveloped in a Mylar cover such as may be found on library books (although the clear plastic was unevenly folded around the jacket, resulting in one short edge that kept coming loose as the slippery plastic worked its way upwards over the boards of the book during reading – not a big issue, and easily remedied with the application of a little tape). I don’t think the careful wrapping was the doing of the Major Online Retailer’s fulfillment center, because a new DVD and a new paperback book I’d also ordered were shipped loose and unprotected in the same box.

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Review: The Red Baron (film)

The Red Baron.

Yesterday was the 100th anniversary of the death of Manfred von Richthofen, so I re-visited this film, preparatory to writing this post. It was as disappointing the second time around as it was the first.

The movie just flirts with history, which is understandable: von Richthofen was only 25 years old when he died, so he wasn’t around long enough to do much more than to become famous as Germany’s flying ace with the most kills during the First World War. He is credited with having written a brief memoir (Der rote Kampfflieger), but considering how young he was, what his connections were, and his celebrity status in Germany, it was probably ghost-written for him.

But from the first scene on, the script of this movie is almost laughably fictitious. To begin with, boys of his time, especially those with von Richthofen’s background (Prussian petite noblesse), never would have behaved as he was portrayed at the beginning of the film. No boy who was old enough to be out hunting with a gun would have been so stupid as to have taken to the woods with a noisily panting pet dog, instead of a trained hunting dog. Furthermore, boys were raised with a healthy respect for firearms and their value, so Manfred never would have abandoned a gun in the forest, just to go rubbernecking at an airplane from the back of a horse.

For much of the rest of the movie, what time is not spent tossing a little history around in dialogue between talking heads is devoted to shoehorning a patently fictional love interest into the story, and displaying vertiginously filmed dogfights that feature hokey closeups showing the pilots doing ridiculous things, such as looking over their shoulders directly into the sun, to locate enemy aircraft.

The film closes with no effort made to postulate who really shot down the Red Baron, although it seems to give the nod to Roy Brown, whose claim to have done so has been discredited, based on the evidence of von Richthofen’s sole wound: through the thorax at an angle impossible for Brown to have shot him, even if Brown had still been pursuing him at the time.

If the makers of the movie had put as much time into writing a better script as they must have done to find an actor who so strongly resembles von Richthofen, the story might have been of more substance than just light entertainment with a historical figure attached.

 

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